The Passion of Father Jacques Hamel

A new biography shows how twenty-first century Europe’s first martyr brought holiness to the ordinary.

Father Jacques Hamel is seen during a church service June 11, 2016 in this handout photo from his parish in Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray, France. He was killed by two attackers July 26, 2016. (CNS photo/Paroisse Saint-Etienne via EPA). Right: A Muslim man walks past St. Therese Church in Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray, France, July 27, 2016, a day after French priest Father Jacques Hamel was killed. (CNS photo/Pascal Rossignol, Reuters)

Between November 2015 and July 2016, France was rocked by a series of spectacular terrorist attacks which created havoc and fear from one corner of the country to the other. The most deadly involved the murder of 130 people in Paris by jihadist suicide-bombers and gunmen on the night of November 15, 2015. Eight months later, 86 people died when a jihadist drove a truck down Nice’s famous Promenade des Anglais.

For many people inside and outside France, however, the incident they remember most vividly from that terrible time was the killing of an 85 year-old Catholic priest by two jihadists at the end of Mass in L’Église Saint-Étienne in the Norman town of Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray on July 26, 2016.

After entering the church armed with knives, Adel Kermiche and Abdel Malik Petitjean subjected Father Jacques Hamel, three nuns and two lay people to an anti-Christian harangue, shouting “Vous, les chrétiens, vous nous supprimez! [You, the Christians, we will do away with you!]. They then forced Father Hamel to his knees before the altar and cut his throat while yelling “Allahu akbar!

The emotional shockwave throughout France was so great that even hardened secularists expressed their horror that un prêtre—not, pointedly, un citoyen de la République—had been cut down during Mass. Gone was the calcified nomenclature usually employed by many French politicians whenever speaking about religion. Somehow Père Hamel’s murder had struck at France’s soul.

But who was Jacques Hamel? How did he live his 58 years of priesthood before his life suddenly came to an end in the summer of 2016? Who was the otherwise unknown country curé now described by some as twenty-first century Europe’s first Christian martyr?

Answers to these and other questions are now available in a new biography. Entitled Père Jacques Hamel (2018) most people in France know the author, Armand Isnard, as a producer of documentaries on people ranging from the singer Edith Piaf to the anarchist-musician Léo Ferré. But Isnard has also put together films about distinctly Christian figures. These include Saint Bernadette Soubirous, the mystic Marthe Robin, Blessed Frédéric Ozanam, and the philosopher and friend of Paul VI, Jean Guitton.

Isnard’s book about Hamel is no hagiography. It testifies, however, to the type of existence lived by thousands of priests over the centuries: one of obscurity and sacrifice in out-of-the-way places. Hamel’s life was about as far removed as it’s possible to get from that of a celebrity-priest or ecclesial careerist. As Isnard demonstrates, Hamel had emptied himself out in service to those entrusted to his care long before his violent death.

Born in 1930 in the town of Darnétal, Jacques Hamel didn’t come from the rural or middle-class background common to many French priests of his generation. Hamel’s roots were firmly working-class. That translated into considerable economic challenges.

Nor was Hamel’s early family life especially stable. His parents divorced when he was young. This was a time in which divorce carried a powerful social stigma in Catholic and secular France. His younger sister Roselyne recalls how other children were told to avoid contact with them. When Hamel was ordained a priest in 1958, his mother Jeanne hid herself behind a church pillar.

Jeanne Hamel made a living as a weaver. It was barely enough to provide for basic needs. Economic adversity didn’t prevent her, however, from regularly cleaning her local parish church or preparing meals for the nuns who lived opposite their house.

The accepting character of Jeanne’s witness plainly left its mark on Jacques. Over and over again, Isnard documents the simple nature of Hamel’s Catholicism. For Hamel, the Church’s faith was true and he didn’t dwell on theological controversies.

Like other priests of his age, Hamel lived through the upheavals of Vatican II, the aftermath of which was especially difficult for the Church in France. But in the words of the parish priest for whom Hamel was substituting that July morning, Father Auguste Moanda-Phuati, when “the Magisterium decreed something, he was ready to follow.”

The other word that’s repeated constantly throughout this biography is “timid.” Hamel’s working-class background and his parents’ divorce contributed to a diffidence that never left him. It was so debilitating for Hamel as a young man that his seminary superiors feared that he would never finish his formation for the diocesan priesthood.

Physical ailments compounded Hamel’s early struggles. He had wanted to be a missionary—one of the Pères Blancs whose labors brought so many people in France’s former colonial empire to embrace Catholicism. His health struggles, however, ruled that out.

This missionary impulse helps account for Hamel’s particular devotion to Blessed Charles de Foucauld—the aristocratic army officer and explorer who, after a dissipated life, had a profound conversion, became a priest, and lived among the Tuareg people in southern Algeria. Foucauld was shot dead by Muslim bandits in 1916. Later in life, Hamel spoke often of the beheading in 1996, most likely by the Groupe Islamique Armé, of the Cistercian monks of Tibhirine in Algeria who were immortalized by the 2010 film Of Gods and Men.

That he might meet a similar fate didn’t apparently cross Hamel’s mind. Yet he was deeply conscious of the power of evil and people’s capacity to inflict suffering on each other. Like most young Frenchmen in the 1950s, Hamel spent time as an army conscript in French Algeria. There he witnessed the sheer savagery of the Algerian War on more than one occasion. It left a deep impression on Hamel, especially after he narrowly missed being gunned down by Algerian nationalists.

Man’s capacity for evil wasn’t something which preoccupied Hamel. But Hamel firmly believed that Satan is alive and roaming the earth. The night before his death, Hamel told some family members that those who invoked the name of God to engage in terrorism like that witnessed in Paris and Nice were “men without souls, nor faith, nor law.”

Such reflections never turned, however, into personal enmity towards those of other faiths. For all the deep theological differences between Christianity and Islam, Hamel enjoyed good relations with local Muslims. The same goes for non-believers. Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray’s Communist mayor wept in public when announcing Hamel’s murder to the world.

Hamel’s ability to form connections with people with whom he disagreed was emblematic of his whole way of being a priest. Isnard illustrates how Hamel’s sheer ordinariness helped him to enter into his parishioners’ everyday lives in unspectacular rural and provincial settings.

As one of his fellow priests related, Hamel wasn’t at all charismatic. He was clumsy and occasionally cantankerous. He rarely said much at diocesan clergy meetings. Nonetheless, Hamel had “the genius of being fully present, without making waves, [and] he knew how to gauge the temperature of the people who had been entrusted to him.” Even in those tense situations with which every priest is familiar, Hamel was very adaptable, making sure that he listened to what was being said. Many bright and personable clergy struggle their entire lives to acquire those qualities.

Above all, Isnard shows how Hamel was unusually focused on fulfilling the most fundamental tasks of any priest. Every week, Hamel took his time to handwrite not just his Sunday homilies but also homilies for the countless baptisms, marriages, and funerals at which he presided. About 500 of these notes, which Hamel composed with the Scriptures open before him, have been found.

According to Isnard, these homilies reflect a determination to convey the Gospel in clear, simple and fresh ways. To all who would listen, Hamel’s constant refrain was that everyone’s vocation was holiness. “Don’t be afraid,” he often proclaimed, “of sanctity!”

This meticulousness about performing any priest’s most important responsibilities to the best of his ability extended into the rest of Hamel’s life. His family often remarked that nothing could distract him from reading his breviary at the prescribed times each day, no matter how distracting the surroundings.

Such thoroughness meant that Hamel saw himself as perpetually on call. Whether it was hearing the confessions of the dying in hospitals, visiting the elderly and sick, or helping troubled individuals who knocked at the door asking for money, Hamel always responded. He simply didn’t know, another priest told Isnard, “how to say no.”

Even after Hamel stepped down from his position as parish priest at the official retirement age of 75, it wasn’t uncommon for Hamel to preside at several funerals a week, not to mention many baptisms and marriages. When asked why he didn’t slow down, Hamel gave the same reply: “I made a vow of obedience and I will go on to the end.”

The most important part of Hamel’s life—what Isnard calls “the essential element of his day”—was the Mass. Its importance to him was such that the normally-reserved Hamel made it known that he didn’t appreciate any indication that Mass wasn’t being taken seriously. Bad choral music visibly frustrated him. Woe betide those who wandered into church late! Hamel firmly believed that the Eucharist was Christ’s Body and Blood and wouldn’t hide his annoyance whenever the host was treated casually.

The seriousness with which Hamel treated Mass was central to his constant effort to live in God’s presence, day after day, no matter the situation in which he found himself. It was central to what he understood every priest’s calling to be: an alter Christus. As Roselyne Hamel says:

The older he aged, the more he was transformed at the moment of the consecration of the Eucharist . . . and the more he aged, the more it was the Passion of Christ that he lived.

On that warm July day, Jacques Hamel was called to live out his own Passion. Isnard relates that Hamel’s affectionate nickname among the clergy of the archdiocese of Rouen was “le mouton” [the sheep]. And the sheep’s last words before he was slaughtered by jihadists were “Va-t en, Satan!

That’s a standard French rendering of the words in Matthew’s Gospel’s 4:10: “Away from me, Satan!” And you can be sure that Hamel knew by heart the rest of this verse. This records Christ telling the Devil, “For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord Your God, and serve Him only’!”

In the last seconds of his life in this world, Father Hamel recalled the words of power spoken by Christ in the face of the Evil One. Perishing as he did, literally in the shadow of a cross and before the altar, le mouton shed his blood in imitatione Christi.

The shy, often awkward man whose killing shook France died in a way familiar to those missionaries whose ranks Hamel had wanted to join as a young man. But he also perished in a manner which paralleled Christ’s death as the Lamb of God who takes away our sins.

That’s all the more reason to affirm Isnard’s conclusions: that Hamel’s death was that of a martyr and that we can confidently believe that le mouton is now a saint—a saint for the ordinary, the unglamorous, the unseen, and the truly humble who pass unknown among us every single day but whose holiness illuminates the world.

Père Hamel, martyr de la foi, priez pour nous!

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About Dr. Samuel Gregg 39 Articles
Samuel Gregg is Research Director at the Acton Institute. The author of many books—including the prize-winning The Commercial Society (Rowman & Littlefield), Wilhelm Röpke’s Political Economy (Edward Elgar), Becoming Europe (Encounter), the prize-winning Reason, Faith, and the Struggle for Western Civilization (Regnery), and over 400 articles and opinion-pieces—he writes regularly on political economy, finance, American conservatism, Western civilization, and natural law theory. He can be followed on Twitter @drsamuelgregg


  1. “Such reflections never turned, however, into personal enmity towards those of other faiths. For all the deep theological differences between Christianity and Islam, Hamel enjoyed good relations with local Muslims. The same goes for non-believers. Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray’s Communist mayor wept in public when announcing Hamel’s murder to the world.”

    Commendable for a priest, perhaps not so for a layman.

  2. I found this to be a very moving review. Quite heart warming but, tempered with a touch of melancholy. Even though they are different men in different times, I found The Cure of Ars coming to mind as I was reading this. Also! At the risk of sounding too romantic, l could well imagine Saint Paul embracing Father Hamel and saying – yes: you were all things to all men. It sounds like this great priest is getting the attention he deserves. Attention he would have shunned, no doubt.
    Stephen in Australia.

  3. Very moving – I hope the biography will be translated into English. By the way – the photo of the church at the top of the article is incorrect. Fr Hamel was martyred in the old Norman church at the centre of town.

  4. In the past fifty-six years the communion of saints has been reduced to fetish — a celebrity cult, weaponized for one purpose or another. The saints who walk among us who are worthy of the recognition of being raised to the altars can wait fifty years to see if indeed their reputation for sanctity endures and support others in their religious observance.
    There is no rush for opening causes until the test of time is met. And substantial substantiated miraculous intervention. And ample evidence of wide-spread devotion.
    This endless cycle of “he’s a saint, “he is ‘the Great’,” is the stuff of adolescence. Let it be over. It is a diminishment of the cult of the saints. It is repugnant.
    Montini and Romero in October? Enough.

    • Yes, I agree …… all of this “saint making” has devalued the coinage !! Now reading about all the scandals of many years standing, would not John Paul II have been better to have remained in Rome than Globetrotting …. ?! He should have been looking after the shop …..

  5. Dear Bonshika, if you do not believe that this totally anonymous priest was killed in hatred for the faith, please tell us for what other foreign reason he was. “Simply being killed by someone who hates Christians does not make one a martyr”? Well, I suppose that this kind of reasoning would disqualify a huge crowd of early martyrs. I doubt very much that Nero cared about the faith.

  6. “Vous, les chrétiens, vous nous supprimez!” [You, the Christians, we will do away with you!].

    If the English is correct, then the vous and the nous need to be switched. As it is, vous (you) is the subject and nous (us) is the object. “Nous vous supprimons” would make nous (we) the subject and vous (you) the object.

  7. Father Jacques is an inspiration to the young and to the young at heart. Long live the memory of his exemplary service to Society.

  8. Any Christian or Jew for that matter killed in accordance with what the Quran orders Muslims to do, at least 100 times in the “holy” book is doing it out of hatred of the faith. He is considered culpable because he has refused to accept Allah and Muhammad his prophet.
    I don’t think he would be the first Christian martyr of the 21st century. There are many more who have been killed for their faith especially in Syria and Iraq, also in Nigeria. I recall the case of one Syrian young man, a Catholic of an Eastern rite, who was invited to repeat the shahadah or Muslim profession of faith and he refused. He was crucified.

  9. I will never forget this beloved Priest. Although I live in NYC and never met him I think about Fr Hamel every week and pray for him and his family during Sunday Mass.

    I wish there was an English translation of this book.

    Thank you

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