Recourse made once again to Mary, Salus Populi Romani

As the Blessed Virgin looked with favor on the prayers of Pope Gregory and the people of Rome all those centuries ago, may she heed the petitions of Peter’s successor in our own day.

Pope Francis prays in front of the Marian icon, "Salus Populi Romani" (health of the Roman people), during a prayer service in an empty St. Peter's Square at the Vatican March 27, 2020. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)

Perhaps no man ascended to the throne of St. Peter in more difficult circumstances than Pope Gregory, who is most justly called “the Great”. When he became pope in 590, the city of Rome lay in ruins. It had once been the envy of the world, but no longer. The emperors had long ago moved their capital far away to the East in Constantinople. The Roman Empire eventually collapsed altogether in the West, and for the next 150 years or so the city was fought over by several different pagan tribes. No victor ever bothered to restore the damage done in the fighting. And when Gregory became pope yet another great calamity befell the city when one of the later waves of the “Plague of Justinian” broke out. This pandemic began in Constantinople about sixty years prior and left tens of millions dead in its wake. Rome was decimated; among the lives it claimed was that of Gregory’s predecessor, Pope Pelagius II. Sickness and death were everywhere.

This was the lot Gregory inherited upon assuming the papal office. What was he to do?

The holy pontiff did not cower in the face of such a crisis. He knew exactly what to do. The confidence he had in his solution to the great problems facing his people came from his experiences years before when serving as papal ambassador to the imperial court in Constantinople. As a monk, Gregory was enormously interested in liturgical matters and knew well the power of the Church’s public and formalized prayer. While in Constantinople, he keenly observed the common practice of holding processions through the city streets seeking to appease God’s wrath for the alleviation of the plague by the chanting psalms, singing the kyrie eleison, and imploring the intercession of Our Lady. The people of Constantinople had a deep devotion to Mary—their city after all, had been consecrated to her under the title Theotokos“God-bearer” or “Mother of God”.

After his election in January, Gregory immediately got to work in bringing this practice to Rome, seeking God’s mercy upon the suffering city. This was his first priority and was a work he took up before he was even consecrated as bishop of Rome, which took place on September 3rd, the date his feast is celebrated now. For the cessation of the plague, Gregory ordered a processional litany through the streets of Rome, to take place on April 25th. In could not begin before because in Gregory’s mind everything had to wait until the arrival of the “secret weapon” he was to employ in this spiritual battle and renewal. Gregory made arrangements for a famous icon of Mary, which he learned about while in Constantinople, be brought to Rome. When it arrived, he was present on the banks of the Tiber River to personally receive it from the boat.

But what was so special about this icon that gave Gregory such confidence in its power?

Various traditions holds that it was was painted by the Evangelist St. Luke during one of his interviews with Mary while he was writing his Gospel. One of Mary’s prized possessions was a table made by her son during his youth in Nazareth when he worked as a carpenter in St. Joseph’s shop. Knowing St. Luke was also an artist, wood from the special table was given to him upon which to paint an icon of the Mother with her Divine Child. As Joan Carroll Cruz writes in Miraculous Images of Our Lady, describing accounts of what transpired:

While applying his brush and paints, St. Luke listened carefully as the Mother of Jesus spoke of the life of her son, facts which the Evangelist later recorded in his Gospel. Legend also tells us that the painting remained in and around Jerusalem until it was discovered by Saint Helena in the 4th century. Together with other sacred relics, the painting was transported to Constantinople where her son, Emperor Constantine the Great, erected a church for its enthronement.

So, after having been in Constantinople for many years, the icon was brought by Gregory to Rome so that through the intercession of the Mother of God, God’s mercy might befall the city. Gregory ordered the procession take place on April 25th, 590. Throngs of people proceeded from seven different churches in Rome, making their way to the Basilica of St. Mary Major—the chief Marian church of the city.

The plague was raging so fiercely that eighty people collapsed and died from it while walking in procession. When the crowds finally arrived at the basilica, Pope Gregory was there to meet them, holding the icon. Taking his place at the head of the now united procession, Gregory held the icon aloft and led the people through the narrow streets of the city. All were chanting various litanies until finally, as they approached the Vatican, the heavens opened and a startling image of St. Michael could be seen sheathing his sword on the summit of Hadrian’s Mausoleum.

Seeing this as an obvious sign that God looked with favor upon the prayers rendered to Him through Mary, Gregory led the people in giving thanks by chanting the Regina Caeli—the Easter Marian Antiphon. A speedy diminution of the plague followed. Hadrian’s Mausoleum was renamed Castel SantAngelo, with a statue of St. Michael sheathing his sword placed on top. The icon of the Mary was placed in the Basilica of St. Mary Major so it could be continually venerated by the grateful people of Rome. It has affectionately been given the title—Salus Populi Romani—“Health of the Roman People.”

The Catholic world knows by now the profound devotion the current pontiff has to this hallowed icon. Pope Francis visited the Basilica of St. Mary Major the day after his election to pray before the icon, entrusting his mission as Bishop of Rome to she who is the Salus Populi Romani. As a matter of course, he visits the basilica to pray in front of the icon before and after every apostolic journey abroad.

In the face of the sickness, death, and upheavals across the world due to the still raging coronavirus pandemic, Pope Francis—like his predecessor Gregory the Great—turned to Mary, Salus Populi Romani. Yesterday, before an empty and rain-covered St. Peter’s Square, Pope Francis imparted an extraordinary Urbi et Orbi blessing “to the city and to the world”—usually reserved only for Christmas, Easter, and upon the election of a new pontiff.  The moving ceremony included Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, chanted litanies, and a reading from Mark’s Gospel about Jesus calming the storm. The Holy Father spoke poignantly about how our self-confident society, which has spurned the helping hand God, must return to Him:

Lord, you are calling to us, calling us to faith. Which is not so much believing that you exist, but coming to you and trusting in you. This Lent your call reverberates urgently: “Be converted!”, “Return to me with all your heart” (Joel 2:12). You are calling on us to seize this time of trial as a time of choosing. It is not the time of your judgement, but of our judgement: a time to choose what matters and what passes away, a time to separate what is necessary from what is not. It is a time to get our lives back on track with regard to you, Lord, and to others.

Beside the Holy Father were two images he bought from the city. One was the famous crucifix kept within the Church of San Marcello al Corso. In 1522, when plague broke out in Rome, this crucifix was processed through the different districts of the city with the people chanting, “Mercy, Holy Crucifix!” The public authorities were worried that the crowds would increase the contagion but, instead, the plague rapidly ended wherever the crucifix was carried.

The other image was, of course, the icon of Mary, Salus Populi Romani, brought from the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

As she looked with favor on the prayers of Pope Gregory and the people of Rome all those centuries ago, may she heed the petitions of Peter’s Successor in our own day:

Dear brothers and sisters, from this place that tells of Peter’s rock-solid faith, I would like this evening to entrust all of you to the Lord, through the intercession of Mary, Health of the People and Star of the stormy Sea. From this colonnade that embraces Rome and the whole world, may God’s blessing come down upon you as a consoling embrace. Lord, may you bless the world, give health to our bodies and comfort our hearts.

If you value the news and views Catholic World Report provides, please consider donating to support our efforts. Your contribution will help us continue to make CWR available to all readers worldwide for free, without a subscription. Thank you for your generosity!

Click here for more information on donating to CWR. Click here to sign up for our newsletter.

About Father Seán Connolly 70 Articles
Father Seán Connolly is a priest of the Archdiocese of New York. Ordained in 2015, he has an undergraduate degree in the Classics from the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts as well as a Bachelor of Sacred Theology, Master of Divinity and a Master of Arts in Theology from Saint Joseph's Seminary in Yonkers, New York. In addition to his parochial duties, he writes for The Catholic World Report, The National Catholic Register and The Wanderer.


  1. Our Father Connolly Has once again executed an extremely well-researched and well-written exposition, this time making the most powerful correlation between our current Holy Father’s significant pleas to God’s Mother for a much-needed end to our current pandemic with those of his predecessors.

    As Father Connolly so poignantly quotes our Holy Father, this is a “time to choose what matters and what passes away, a time to separate what is necessary from what is not. It is a time to get our lives back on track with regard to you, Lord, and to others.”

    Well done, indeed! Our Lady, Salus Populi Romani, Ora pro nobis!

  2. If anyone can save the people of earth it is definitely Blessed Mary, Theotokos, the Mother of Jesus and the Mother of God, the one and the same! First we have to do what she advices, best recorded in the Gospel of St. John, “Do whatever [Jesus] tells you” (Jn 2:8). What does Jesus tell us? So many things that all the books in the world could not contain them (cf, Jn 21:25). So permit me two examples: The Great Commission from the Gospel of St. Matthew; “All power in heaven and on earth has been given to Me. Go therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptiizing them in the Name of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you. And behold, I Am with you always, until the end of the age” (Mt 28:19-20). Secondly, we must observe what Jesus teaches us, which is best presented in the second half of Chapter Six in St. John’s Gospel, “The Bread of Life Discourse.” “My Father gives you the true Bread from heaven. For the Bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world . . . Jesus said to them, I Am the Bread of Life, whoever comes to Me will never hunger, and whoever believes in Me will never thirst” (Jn 6:32-35). Just like Jesus’ first disciples we must proclaim, “Lord give us this Bread always” (Jn 6:34). How can Jesus our Lord give us this Bread always, if His premier representatives on earth have decided we don’t need it at this crucial time? I realize the significance of social distancing during times of plague and have no problem with suspending public Liturgies; but If I can go to a store to buy food, why can’t educated men figure out a way to safely distribute Holy Communion, using the same precautions grocery stores are implementing? That is how important I believe the Bread of Life is during the current pandemic!

    • As I re-read my entry I was not completely satisfied about implying Mary can save us, and would have preferred intercede, as we have only one Saviour Jesus Christ. I’ll accept what I wrote, recognizing Mary is the Co-Redemptrix according to St. Pope John Paul II and Mediatrix of God’s Grace by her role as Theotokos, which refers to the Blessed Virgin Mary as a mediator in the salvific redemption of her son Jesus Christ and that Jesus bestows graces through Mary. Mediatrix is an ancient title that has been used by many saints since at least the 5th century.

      • The Holy Father Pope FRancis might reconsider his remarks aboout Mary being Mother and Lady yes, but not co-redemptrix. This is what has been asked for, for a long time. It only means God wants us to participate in this part of the redemption that Jesus paid for 2000 years ago, along with His Mother. It does not at all take anything from Jesus but is the fulfilling of what He asked for. If human beings can’t find it in themselves to step into the Kingdom with friends and relatives of the heavenly group, they remain cowards. He will not save us without us. She promised the reign of peace!!!! Rosary too, St, Michael prayer after Mass?? I wish.

  3. I just wish the Pope, Cardinals and Bishops would make a collective call for a return of praying the Rosary as part of asking our Blessed Mother for her intercession. For example how about recommending or designating every day that sometime between 8 to 10 PM that the a rosary be said by all Catholics. I mean how hard would that be, just to make such a simple request. It seems the power of the Rosary has been forgotten. Now there is a real need to bring back this prayer to all the Church, not just the few who have been faithful in saying the Rosary.

  4. Thank you for the very informative article. Could you please tell us where to look for the sources that show that the procession actually took place on April 25, 590 AD? Thank you.

1 Trackback / Pingback

  1. 234- Prayer Processions plus a Plan C – Constant Procession

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

All comments posted at Catholic World Report are moderated. While vigorous debate is welcome and encouraged, please note that in the interest of maintaining a civilized and helpful level of discussion, comments containing obscene language or personal attacks—or those that are deemed by the editors to be needlessly combative or inflammatory—will not be published. Thank you.